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गुरुवार, 5 दिसंबर 2013

लकार, गण, धातुप्रकार, विभक्ति

गण से नियत होगा कि धातु और आख्यातप्रत्यय के बीच यदि विकरणप्रत्यय भी लग रहा हो तो वह विकरण प्रत्यय क्या होगा। 
Word – In Sanskrit, words are of three kinds. सुबन्त (Noun-form). Ex: रामः, का, चतुरः । तिङन्त (Verb-form). Ex: पठति, आसीत्, गमिष्यति । अव्यय ...
इस लिंकका ऑडियो सुनो
केषाञ्चन धातूनां परस्मैपदप्रत्ययाः एव योज्यन्ते । ते धातवः परस्मैपदिनः । उदा: पठ्, लिख्, गम्
केषाञ्चन धातूनाम् आत्मनेपदप्रत्ययाः एव योज्यन्ते । ते धातवः आत्मनेपदिनः । उदा: वन्द्, लभ्, आस्
केषाञ्चन धातूनाम् उभयविधाः अपि प्रत्ययाः योज्यन्ते । ते धातवः उभयपदिनः । उदा: पच्, कृ, दा 
के धातवः परस्मैपदिनः, के आत्मनेपदिनः, के उभयपदिनः इति अभ्यासेन ज्ञातव्यम् । लकाराः – संस्कृते दश लकाराः सन्ति । लट्, लिट्, लुट्, लृट्, लेट्, लोट्, लङ्, लिङ् (विधिलिङ्, आशीर्लिङ्), लुङ्, लृङ् च । एते लकाराः कालं भावं वा सूचयन्ति । 

लट् लकारः – वर्तमानकालः
लिट्, लङ्, लुङ् लकाराः – भूतकालः
लुट्, लृट् लकारौ – भविष्यत्कालः
लोट्, विधिलिङ् लकारौ – आज्ञा, प्रार्थना इत्यादयः
आशीर्लिङ् लकारः – आशीः
लृङ् लकारः – सम्भावना
लेट् लकारः – वेदेषु एव, वर्तमानकालः

सर्वेषु लकारेषु तिङ् प्रत्ययाः भवन्ति । किन्तु भिन्नेषु लकारेषु तेषां प्रत्ययानां भिन्नानि रूपाणि भवन्ति ।
लट् लकारः – परस्मैपदम् – आख्यातप्रत्ययाः
पुरुषः / वचनम्
एकवचनम्
द्विवचनम्
बहुवचनम्
प्रथमपुरुषः
ति
तः
अन्ति
मध्यमपुरुषः
सि
थः
उत्तमपुरुषः
मि
वः
मः
लट् लकारः – आत्मनेपदम् – आख्यातप्रत्ययाः
पुरुषः / वचनम्
एकवचनम्
द्विवचनम्
बहुवचनम्
प्रथमपुरुषः
ते
इते
अन्ते
मध्यमपुरुषः
से
इथे
ध्वे
उत्तमपुरुषः
वहे
महे
विकरणप्रत्ययाः – धातोः आख्यातप्रत्ययस्य च मध्ये केचन प्रत्ययाः भवन्ति । एते आख्यातप्रत्ययाः । 

लट्, लोट्, लङ्, विधिलिङ् लकारेषु गणानुसारेण धातूनाम् विकरणप्रत्ययाः भवन्ति । 


संस्कृत-शिक्षण-पाठमाला
-------------------------------

आप सबका इस पाठ्यक्रम में हार्दिक स्वागत है। अनुवाद सीखने से पूर्व संस्कृत की सामान्य जानकारी अत्यावश्यक है। आज प्रथम दिवस दीपावली के दिन संस्कृत से सम्बन्धित सामान्य जानकारी प्रस्तुत है। सम्भवतः आप ये सब जानते होंगे, किन्तु हमें सबसे निम्न स्तर से प्रारम्भ करना है। वैसे यह पाठ्यक्रम जिज्ञासुओं के लिए ही है, विद्वानों के लिए नहीं। कोई विनम्रता पूर्वक ज्ञान की अपेक्षा करेगा, तो वह अवश्य सीखेगा, किन्तु कोई ज्ञान-वितण्डा करेगा, तो उसे कुछ प्राप्त न होगा। कोई सर्वज्ञ नहीं होता, गलतियाँ हमसे भी हो सकती है, कोई हमारी गलतियों की ओर संकेत करता है तो उसका स्वागत है। अस्तु----

(1.) संस्कृत-भाषा में तीन लिंगः---(क) पुल्लिंग, (ख) स्त्रीलिंग, (ग) नपुंसकलिंग।

(2.) तीन वचनः---(क) एकवचन, (ख) द्विवचन, (ग) बहुवचन।

(3.) तीन पुरुषः--(क) प्रथमपुरुष, (ख) मध्यमपुरुष, (ग) उत्तमपुरुष।

(4.) छः कारक विभक्ति और चिह्नसहितः--
(क) कर्ताकारकः--ने (प्रथमा),
(ख) कर्मकारकः--को, (द्वितीया)
(ग) करणकारकः---से द्वारा, (तृतीया)
(घ) सम्प्रदानकारकः--के लिए, (चतुर्थी)
(ङ) अपादानकारकः---से अलग, (पञ्चमी),
(च) सम्बन्धः----का,के,की, (षष्ठी),
(छ) अधिकरणकारकः---में, पर, (सप्तमी),
(ज) सम्बोधनः--हे, अरे, (प्रथमा),

(विशेषः----सम्बन्ध और सम्बोधन को कारक नहीं माना जाता। इसका विशेष वक्तव्य कारक प्रकरण में पढेंगे।)

इस प्रकार कुल विभक्तियाँ सात हैं।

(5.) लकारः---संस्कृत में कुल 10 लकार होते हैं। लिंग के दो भेद हैं---आशीर्लिंग और विधिलिंग। लेट् लकार का प्रयोग केवल वेद में होता है। इस प्रकार लोक में 10 लकार ही रहते हैं, जो इस प्रकार हैः--
(क) लट्,
(ख) लिट्,
(ग) लुट्,
(घ) लृट्,
(ङ) लेट्,
(च) लोट्,
(छ) लङ्,
(ज) लिंगः---आशीर्लिंग और विधिलिंग,
(झ) लुङ्,
(ञ) लृङ्

(6.) गणः---10 गण होते है। इसके अतिरिक्त एक कण्ड्वादिगण भी है। जो इस प्रकार हैः--
(क) भ्वादिगण,
(ख) अदादिगण,
(ग) जुहोत्यादिगण,
(घ) दिवादिगण,
(ङ) स्वादिगण,
(च) तुदादिगण,
(छ) रुधादिगण,
(ज) तनादिगण,
(झ) क्रयादिगण,
(ञ) चुरादिगण,
(ट) कण्ड्वादिगण (अतिरिक्त)

(7.) धातुएँ दो प्रकार की होती हैं----(क) आत्मनेपदी (ख) परस्मैपदी। कुछ धातुएँ उभयपदी भी होती हैं।

आज प्रथम पाठ में इतनी जानकारियाँ दी हैं। इसे आप मनोयोग से कण्ठस्थ कर लें। यदि पूर्वतः ही याद है तो एक बार देख अवश्य लें। यदि सीखना है तो इन बातों को बार-बार न पूछें। यदि आपको याद होगा तो बार-2 पूछने की आवश्यकता भी नहीं पडेगी।

जो बात एक बार बता दी जाये, उसे याद रखें और बार-2 न पूछे। ये पढने की सबसे उत्तम शैली है।

-------------- Lesson-10
General introduction to the tenses.
In Sanskrit, verbs are associated with ten different
forms of usage.
six relate to the tenses
four relate to moods.
Six tenses are identified as follows.
Present tense: वर्तमान काल
There is only one form for the present tense.
Past tense: भूत काल
Past tense has three forms associated with it.
1. Expressing something that had happened sometime
 in the recent past, typically last few days.
2. Expressing something that might have just happened,
 typically in the earlier part of the day.
3. Expressing something that had happened in the distant
 past about which we may not have much or any
 knowledge.
Future tense: भविष्यत् काल
Future tense has two forms associated with it.
1. Expressing something that is certainly going to happen.
2. Expressing something that is likely to happen.

There are four forms of the verb which do not relate
to any time. These forms are called "moods" in the
English language.
English grammar specifies three moods which are,
Indicative mood, Imperative mood, Subjunctive mood.
In Sanskrit primers one sees a reference to four moods
with a slightly different nomenclature.
These are,
Imperative mood,
potential mood,
conditional mood and
benedictive mood.
Since the nomenclature differs we will have
to see what the moods in Sanskrit actually refer to.
The ten forms of usage of the verb are each given a
name in Sanskrit and all the names start with the
akshara l. Hence the forms are called the ten "lakaras"
(Even though two of the forms do not strictly start
with l , the term lkara: applies)
1.लट् -- Present tense
2. लङ् -- Past tense - imperfect
3. लुङ् --  Past tense - aorist
4. लिट् --  Past tense - perfect
5. लुट् -- Future tense - likely
6. लृट् -- Future tense - certain
7. लृङ्  -- Conditional mood
8. विधिलिङ् -- Potential mood
9. आशीर्लिङ् -- Benedictive mood
10. लोट् --  Imperative mood
It may be noted that five of the lakaras end in ट् and
the remaining five in ङ् . One more Lakara is known to
be seen in Vedic texts. It is known as लेट् .
It must also be remembered that verbs in Sanskrit belong
to two categories depending on whether the activity
specified in the verb applies to the person himself -- आत्मनेपद
or whether it applies to someone other than the subject
of the verb -- परस्मैपद

Verbs which can take both forms are known as उभयपद
Each verb in Sanskrit can be traced to a root which we
may refer to as the root form of the verb. There are many
instances of verbs being derived from two different forms
of a root. The form of the root used in deriving the verb
will depend on the tense.
Forms of the verb for the different tenses and moods are
obtained by adding suffixes or prefixes or both to the
root form and adding an infix as well. So we may say
that the general for of any "lakara" is
 (prefix) + root form + infix + suffix
The paranthesis indicates that the prefix is not present
in all the forms.
The infix is generally referred to as the conjugational sign.

The form of the infix is dependent on the root form as
well as person. In Sanskrit, the aksharas in the infix are
termed as विकरणप्रत्ययः and those in the suffix are
called तिङ्प्रत्ययः. The root form is known as धातु

The suffix is referred to as the verbal termination sign.
The form of the suffix depends on the lakara and we can
apply some rules to arrive at the suffixes.
For each of the lakaras, nine suffixes will have to be remembered.
Three persons and three numbers for each person make up the nine.
It may be borne in mind that the verbal termination signs
also depend on the type of the verb, i.e., "Atmanepada"
or "Parasmaipada".

----------------- Lesson10 --------------------
Past tense (simple past tense):
The form considered here is लङ्
As seen in the introduction, the formation of
the verb may be specified through a formula.

(prefix) + verb root + infix + suffix

The infix is based on the root and the person while
the suffix, referred to as the verb termination,
depends on the tense or the mood.

For the simple past tense, अ is the prefix.
The terminations are as follows. These apply for
verbs in "parasmaipada".
Per.     Sing.     Dual        Pl.
III.         त्         तां           अन्
II.          सू          तं             त
I.             अं         व             म
Applying the formula the forms of a verb will be
obtained as
III Sing. A+vr+A+t­
III Dual A+vr+A+tam­
III Pl. A+vr +A+An­
II Sing. A+vr+A+s¥
II Dual A+vr+A+tm­
II Pl. A+vr+A+t
I Sing. A+vr+Aa+A|
I Dual A+vr+Aa+v
I Pl. A+vr+Aa+m
Now for the forms (past tense) of the verb gÅC¢t.
The root form for the verb is gÅCq
The infix corresponding to the root gÅC qis also A
for second and third person but Aa for first person.
Per. Sing. Dual Pl.
III. अगच्छत्      अगच्छतां         अगच्छन्
     He went     They two went    They went

II. अगच्छः        अगच्छतं        अगच्छत
     You went   You two went      You went

I. अगच्छं         अगच्छाव            अगच्छाम
      I went       We two went         We went

The discerning reader would want to know why in
the case of the second person singular, there is
no conformity with the indicated termination s¥ or
why differences are seen in applying Sandhi rules?
It must be remembered that there are specific grammar
rules in repect of how sounds are modified when suffixes
are added. Typically, the suffix s¥ ,when added to a noun
or verb root, becomes a visarg. We will not dwell on this
much, as this is beyond the scope of our current lessons.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
------------------- Lesson 10 --------------------
Future Tense- B¢vÝyÏkal:
As seen in the introduction, Future Tense may
express something that is certainly going to happen
(l¦zq) or express something that may happen(l¤zq).
Of these two, l¦zq is seen in frequent use.
The infix for future tense is Þy. This infix changes its
form to iÝy when applied to some roots. In some cases
it may become Ýy. There is no direct rule or formula
which we can remember in respect of this infix. It
will be necessary to commit to memeory the forms
for different verbs.
For many verbs, two root forms may be seen. For
example,
gm­ , gÅCq are the two root forms given for gÅC¢t.Likewise,
pa , ¢pb­ for ¢pb¢t and
ÞTa , ¢t¿q for ¢t¿¢t .
The form of the verb for future tense will be based
on the first root where two roots are specified.
As seen earlier, the second form of the root will be
used in generating the verb in present tense, past tense
and imperative mood.
Let us look at the terminations for future tense.
The infix and the tense terminations are combined
together and shown here.
The table applies to verbs in "parasmaipada"
Per. Sing. Dual Pl.
III Ýy¢t Ýyt: Ýy¢Ót
II Ýy¢s ÝyT: ÝyT
I Ýya¢m Ýyav: Ýyam:
Now for the forms of the verb gÅC¢t in future tense.
III g¢mÝy¢t g¢mÝyt: g¢mÝy¢Ót
He will They two They
go will go will go
II g¢mÝy¢s g¢mÝyT: g¢mÝyT
You will You two You
go will go will go
I g¢mÝya¢m g¢mÝyav: g¢mÝyam:
I will go We two We will
will go go
The forms for ¢pb¢t. Please note that the form
of the root that is taken is pa .
III paÞy¢t paÞyt: paÞy¢Ót
He will They two They will
drink will drink drink
II paÞy¢s paÞyT: paÞyT
You will You (two) You willdrink will drink drink
I paÞya¢m paÞyav: paÞyam:
I will We (two) We will
drink will drink drink
The student would have observed by now that he/she
will have to remember the root forms for many verbs
to be able to correctly form the verbs. Panini, the
foremost among Grammarians, had listed about 1950
root forms for Sanskrit. Surprisingly, knowledge of
just about 300 of the root forms will be adequate for
understanding Sanskrit texts.
If you arew curious as to what these 300 are, you may
have to wait for advanced lessons to be put up in these
pages! This is a big task and we would like to know if
you are interested. Send us a note.
---------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------Lesson 10--------------
Summary of root terminations and verbal
terminations for different tenses and moods.
The tables given below may be used as a basic
reference for determining the forms of the verbs
in different tenses. The student is reminded that
the table is given only as a reference and the
terminations cannot be blindly applied to a root
form. It will be necessary to remember the root
forms for many verbs.
Terminations for the present Tense
prÞmWpd AaÏmnEpd
III ¢t t: A¢Ót tE itE AÓtE
II ¢s T: T sE iTE ÒvE
I ¢m v: m: i vhE mhE
Terminations for the Past (imperfect) tense
III t­ tam­ An­ t ita| AÓt
II s¥ tm­ t Ta: iTa| Òvm­I Am­ v m i v¢h m¢h
Terminations for the Future Tense
III Ýy¢t Ýyt: Ýy¢Ót ÝytE ÝyEtE ÝyÓtE
II Ýy¢s ÝyT: ÝyT ÝysE ÝyTE ÝyÒvE
I Ýya¢m Ýyav: Ýyam: ÝyE ÝyavhE ÝyamhE
In case of the Future Tense, we have already seen
that the general termination is Þy. In some verbs,
Þy changes to Ýy and also takes i in the beginning
of the termination. The form shown above may be
interpreted in the light of this observation.
Terminations for the Imperative Mood
III t¤ ta| AÓt¤ ta| ita| AÓta|
II tat­ t| t Þv iTa| Òvm­
I Aa¢n Aav Aam­ eE AavhW AamhW
Terminations for the Potential Mood
III iIt­ iItam­ iIy¤: iIt iIyata| iIrn­
II iI: iItm­ iIt iITa: iIyaTa| iIÒv|
I iIy| iIv iIm iIy iIv¢h iIm¢h










4 टिप्‍पणियां:

Shrwan Jha ने कहा…

आदरणीय मेम,
आपका यह लेख व्याकरण के बारे में सुन्दर ढंग से वर्णन करके समझाया गया है|
किन्तु मुझे यह समझना है की इस व्याकरण के द्वारा किस प्रकार के कार्य किया जा सकता है?
व्याकरण हम सब क्यों सिखते है ?

Shrwan Jha ने कहा…

क्या व्याकरण का कार्य सिर्फ शब्दों की अशुद्धियाँ दूर करने के लिए है या किसी और कारण से इसका निर्माण किया गया है ? इस पर थोड़ा प्रकाश डालिए|

Nitin bajaj ने कहा…
इस टिप्पणी को लेखक द्वारा हटा दिया गया है.
Gulshan kumar ने कहा…

संस्कृत के 10 गण व उससे संबंधित सभी धातुओं के नाम बताइए
आपकी बड़ी कृपा होगी